2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 4: by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Debra J. Shetlar, MD

By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Debra J. Shetlar, MD

Discusses advances within the prognosis and category of tumors because it courses the reader via a logical, tissue-specific series that levels from topography via disorder procedure to normal and differential analysis. comprises many new colour pathologic and medical pictures and diagrams. Covers wound fix; specimen dealing with, together with processing and marking; and diagnostic concepts. additionally incorporates a list for soliciting for ophthalmic pathologic session.

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Additional info for 2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors

Example text

00 X 30. ''''' Unlike a sphero-cylindrical form of lens, where there are only two alternative specifications, a toric lens can have a virtually infinite variety of forms, depending on the curvature of the spherical surface. Nomenclature of toric lenses 3. Convert cross-cylinder form to spherocylindrical form . 00 DC X 140 1. 00 DC X 50 2. ooOC X 140 3. 00 DC X 140. Sphere-cylindrical to toric form with specific base curve on toroidal surface 1. Transpose sphero-cylindrical form to the sphero-cylindrical form with the same sign of cylinder as the power of the base curve.

3. Example 1 considers the 90° axis in the example given above. The calculation is reversed, so that incident light enters the rear concave surface divergent from the second principal focus. After refraction by the first (rear) surface and passing through the required thickness, the vergence incident at the second (front) surface is found (L 2) . 11). If light from a distant object (incident vergence zero) is then passed through the lens, it will focus at the required back vertex focal length. 1,46 - 14 46 The situation is different if a front toroidal surface is required, as in this case both of the front surface powers must be compensated.

Secondly, a plano prism deviates light but does not change its vergence. Thus there will be no transverse ('with' or 'against') movement of an image when a lens is moved against an object. Thirdly, a prism deviates the image of an object towards its apex. 1, a crossline object is being viewed through a plano prism. 1a, the image is shown deviated towards the apex along the base-apex line. 1b, the prism has been rotated so that the base-apex line is vertical. At this point, the vertical object and image lines coincide, and the prism can be marked as shown, with a line along the base-apex direction.

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