2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 1: by Eric P. Purdy, MD

By Eric P. Purdy, MD

Covers systemic health conditions probably to impact ophthalmic sufferers, resembling infectious, metabolic, neurologic and cardiovascular ailments; melanoma; and rheumatic and endocrine issues. encompasses a dialogue of preventive medication and scientific emergencies, in addition to geriatrics and information. Ophthalmic concerns are highlighted all through. includes quite a few up-to-date references and tables directory the names, symptoms and unwanted effects of antibiotic, antihypertensive and anticancer medications. lately revised 2010 2011.

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Sample text

Neonatal herpes infection involves multiple systems and, if untreated, has a mortality rate as high as 80%. The drug of choice for treating acute systemic infections is acyclovir. Localized disease can be treated with oral acyclovir. Topical treatment of skin or mucocutaneous lesions CHAPTER 1: Infectious Disease. 23 with acyclovir ointment decreases the healing time. Oral acyclovir can also be used prophylactically for severe and recurrent genital herpes. Long-term suppressive oral acyclovir (400 mg twice a day) also reduces the recurrence of herpes simplex epithelial keratitis and stromal keratitis.

Pneumonia. hepatitis. and Guillain-Barre syndrome. In immunocompromised patients. CMV interstitial pneumonia carries a 90% mortality rate. Disseminated spread to the gastrointestinal tract. CNS. and eyes is common in patients with AIDS. Latent infection within leukocytes accounts for transfusion-associated disease. Recent cases of CMV retinitis have been reported follOWing intravitreous corticosteroid injections. CMV replication itself can further suppress cell-mediated immunity. with resultant depressed lymphocyte response and development of severe opportunistic infections.

A newer NNRTI. efavirenz (Sustiva). is taken once daily. has excellent activity against HI\'; and has fewer side effects than other NNRTIs. This agent has become a cornerstone of antiretroviral therapy. and its efficacy over other antiretrovirals has been established in many clinical trials. ) is a new NNRTI and was granted accelerated approval in the United States and Europe in 2008. Etravirine has been evaluated in multiple controlled trials. and in one study. it possessed such initial antiviral potency.

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