A Colour Atlas of Avian Anatomy by J. McLelland

By J. McLelland

This color atlas presents an advent to how birds are developed. it truly is involved mostly with the economically very important species, yet, the place their anatomy considerably fluctuate, the extra universal caged birds are handled. The e-book is deliberate round convinced physique platforms together with the integument and skeleton and digestive, urogenital and respiration tracts. Lymphoid tissue, blood vessels and nerves are handled as they take place in organization with those platforms. In a few circumstances, a instantly topographical strategy is taken. many of the photos are of unpolluted, unfixed fabric, a few have been enthusiastic about the help of a dissecting microscope. the images are followed by means of a brief textual content which identifies a few of the positive factors and explains their functionality.

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2005). However, the ontogenic development of intestinal maltase activity remains controversial. According to Toofanian (1984) and Gallois et al. , 1995). , 1999). Finally, Otutumi et al. (2005) found similar maltase activity in the jejunal mucosa of 37and 60-day-old rabbits, while it was higher in jejunal contents for 60- than for 37-day-old rabbits, maltase activity being expressed per mg of, respectively, mucosa or contents. Modulating the intestinal capacity for starch digestion according to diet is usually approached by varying starch intake.

For instance, Debray et al. (2003) found no differences either in pancreatic amylase or in intestinal mucosal or intraluminal maltase in 42-dayold rabbits consuming twice the amount of starch than controls. Furthermore, Gidenne et al. (2007) reported higher amylase activity in the total intestinal contents in 42-day-old rabbits consuming one-third less starch than controls, while Gutiérrez et al. (2002a) reported no changes in pancreatic amylase in 35-day-old rabbits consuming twice the amount of starch (by replacing lactose) than controls and higher pancreatic amylase and jejunal mucosal maltase when consuming one-third less starch.

1990); 2, Gidenne and Perez (1993a); 3, Maertens and Luzi (1995); 4, Cossu et al. (2004). with lower starch content in comparison with those of higher starch content (even with the same source of starch). Although statistically significant, this decrease remains small and may often be considered irrelevant. There is no clear explanation for these results. In fact, a lower dietary starch level corresponds to a higher fibre level, and thus it can be hypothesized that a faster rate of passage leads to a lower efficiency in starch degradation.

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