A survey on communication networks for electric system by Gungor V.C., Lambert F.C.

By Gungor V.C., Lambert F.C.

In state-of-the-art aggressive electrical application industry, trustworthy and real-time info develop into the major issue for trustworthy supply of energy to the end-users, profitability of the electrical software and client delight. The operational and advertisement calls for of electrical utilities require a high-performance information verbal exchange community that helps either current functionalities and destiny operational standards. during this admire, considering the fact that this kind of verbal exchange community constitutes the middle of the electrical process automation purposes, the layout of a cheap and trustworthy community structure is important. during this paper, the possibilities and demanding situations of a hybrid community structure are mentioned for electrical approach automation. extra in particular, web dependent digital deepest Networks, strength line communications, satellite tv for pc communications and instant communications (wireless sensor networks, WiMAX and instant mesh networks) are defined intimately. the incentive of this paper is to supply a greater figuring out of the hybrid community structure which can offer heterogeneous electrical procedure automation program necessities. during this regard, our goal is to offer a based framework for electrical utilities who plan to make use of new conversation applied sciences for automation and accordingly, to make the decision-making method more desirable and direct.

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The TTL (time to live) in a goodbye packet is set to 3, so that if the sending node moves out of the transmission range of its neighbors, the packet will arrive to them anyway. If a node A does not receive any Hello message for a long time from a neighbor B, this means that B has either abruptly switched off or moved away. Unfortunately, it is impossible for a node of an ad hoc network to determine which of these two events is occurred. Then our protocol manages both events in the same way. Node A set to 1 a specific flag in the BÕs entry of its Neighbor_Table.

How it manages the merging and the partitioning of the network. During the phase 2, when a node executes the procedure of Gradual_Merging to move into a new network, it must start the procedure for IP address configuration again, to be sure that an unused address is present in the new network. In order to assess the traffic introduced during the phase 1 and the phase 2 separately, a distinction is needed between the packets used for the configuration of the address. Let us introduce a new notation that denotes the initial configuration packets of phase 1 with requester1, search_IP1, used_IP1 and initialize_1, while the packets of 912 M.

As we explain in the paper, the traffic for the management of the network partitioning is related to node density. The packets for the partition management procedure (check_partition, verify_partition and change_ netid) are sent in broadcast with low TTL (Time To Live), such as, whenever a node n starts the partition management procedure, this type of traffic involves nodes in a small area surrounding n. Then the behavior of our protocol referred to the partition management depends also on the density of neighbors for each node in the network, and not only on the total number of nodes in the network.

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