By Marshall C. Yovits
This quantity in a sequence detailing recommendations in undefined, software program and the theory/design/applications of pcs, is anxious with reusable software program parts, object-oriented modelling, discrete occasion simulation, and neurocomputing formalisms in laptop studying and visualization.
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Because type Item may end up being one whose representation is large and expensive to copy, the Push operation may run very slowly. Consider its execution time when x is a Queue of Integers, for example. A similar problem with the design stems from the semantics of the Top operation. Again, because Item may be any type, copying the top Item of s to return to the caller may be expensive. This situation is acceptable if Item is restricted to simple types such as Integer. But if there are no restrictions on type Item, then the inherent copying designed into the Push and Top operations is problematical.
A concrete component implementing an abstract component that exports a type should be required to provide code for these operations. A client should be expected to invoke the initialization operation for every variable immediately after entering the scope of its declaration, and to invoke the finalization operation immediately before exiting that scope (Muralidharan and Weide, 1990). C++ supports compiler-generated calls to operations for this purpose (“constructors” and “destructors”) but does not require that a component REUSABLE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS 29 have them.
1985; Liskov and Guttag, 1986; Wing, 1987) and Z (Spivey, 1989). Both permit the specifier to define mathematical theories and then to define abstract program interfaces using those theories. , 1985; Guttag and Horning, 1986a) and a program-interface REUSABLE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS 19 specification is written in an implementation-language-specific Larch Interface Language (Wing, 1987). Larch can be used to write specifications in either the algebraic or the model-based style, but the main catalog of published examples (Guttag and Homing, 1986b) clearly favors the algebraic style.