Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3, Volume 90 (Semiconductors by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

This quantity is the 3rd of a suite of 7 concerning photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences coated right here comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer identical crystalline silicon; and different complex silicon sun mobilephone buildings and processes.

Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinctive itself during the cautious number of recognized authors, editors, and participants. initially widely recognized because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing a variety of landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely proper volumes meant for long term impression and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may stay of significant curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and machine engineers in academia, clinical laboratories and smooth industry.

  • Written and edited by way of across the world well known experts
  • Relevant to a large readership: physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and machine engineers in academia, medical laboratories and glossy industry

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2010). The liquid contains P atoms serving as P-source and heavy doping is reached after recrystallization of the molten Si. , via Ni and Ag. Only one extra step is added and plating allows for thinner, highly conductive grid lines compared to screen-printed contacts. , 2008). , phosphoric acid deposited on the wafer prior to laser 49 State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells doping. It allows for self-aligned plating of the front contacts as well. Both processes insert extra steps after firing of the Al-BSF, which can therefore be optimized independently of the front contact.

6 Seed-and-plate The application of Ag metal paste for front contact formation is always a compromise between low contact resistivity, good line conductivity, and high aspect ratio (low shadowing). An alternative addressing these issues is the seed-and-plate approach, where first a seed layer is formed, establishing low contact resistance, but not necessarily showing high conductivity. In a second step, the contact is thickened by plating of highly conductive metal. If in the first step a narrow seed layer is formed, high aspect ratios can be reached after plating.

The goal is to establish good contact with low contact resistivity on emitters with low P surface concentration in combination with high conductivity of the Ag finger. This would enable low series resistance (high FF) and low recombination losses (good surface passivation with high Voc and jsc). In reality, there is a trade-off between low surface doping concentration and high contact resistivity. , 2013; Carrol, 2013). , 2011). In addition, the thickness of the glass frit layer between Si and Ag particles in the paste plays an important role, with very thin layers showing best results.

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