AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza

By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,

South Asia's HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous. therefore, knowledgeable, prioritized, and powerful responses necessitate an knowing of the epidemic variety among and inside nations. extra unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the long run dimension of South Asia's epidemic depends upon a good two-pronged procedure: to start with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to handle the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to minimize stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans undertaking excessive hazard behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans residing with HIV and AIDS. This evaluate was once undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.

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Extra resources for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)

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The current site network consists of the following: • voluntary counseling and testing centers in all four provinces (Balochistan, Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab, and Sindh) • all public sector blood banks in all four provinces • STI clinics in all tertiary-level hospitals in three provinces (Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab, and Sindh). 18 • AIDS in South Asia More recently, the Canadian International Development Agency has supported Pakistan’s launch of a second-generation surveillance program that includes these objectives: • enhanced mapping to determine the locations and sizes of key high-risk networks of female and male SWs, IDUs, and hijras (transgendered men) • integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) among high-risk groups to better understand HIV transmission dynamics and epidemic potential.

Female Sex Workers Behavioral surveillance survey (BSS) data from India (NACO 2001b) and from a cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka (Saravanapavananthan 2002) highlight how client load and consistent condom use may differ according to the type of sex work. India has at least 500,000 female sex workers (SWs), with considerable variation among states. In the 2001 BSS in India, female SWs overall reported a mean of 11 paying clients in the past seven days, a figure that varied among states. Brothel-based female SWs reported a much greater paying client load than their non-brothel-based counterparts.

2 percent in Gujarat-Dadra-Nagar Haveli), contribute to the epidemic potential of HIV in India. Throughout India, less than a third of the general population who reported sex with nonregular partners also reported using condoms consistently with those partners, with notable exceptions in Maharashtra and Goa-Daman-Diu. Both urban and rural dwellers in those two areas reported comparatively high levels of consistent condom use with nonregular partners. In urban areas, well over half of the general population reported such condom use, with proportionately greater reports (generally by at least 20 percent) of males reporting condom use than females.

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