American Economic Growth and Standards of Living before the by Robert E. Gallman, John Joseph Wallis

By Robert E. Gallman, John Joseph Wallis

This benchmark quantity addresses the talk over the results of early industrialization on criteria of residing through the many years ahead of the Civil struggle. Its members reveal that the combination antebellum financial system used to be starting to be swifter than the other huge economic climate had grown before.Despite the dramatic fiscal progress and upward push in source of revenue degrees, questions stay as to the overall caliber of lifestyles in this period. was once the advance in source of revenue greatly shared? How did financial development have an effect on the character of labor? Did larger degrees of source of revenue result in superior future health and sturdiness? The authors tackle those questions by means of examining new estimates of work strength participation, actual wages, and productiveness, in addition to of the distribution of source of revenue, peak, and food.

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For the others, the postbellum means were assumed to have held in the antebellum years as well. These figures gave an unadjusted level of the ante46. The census population figures were reorganized in certain years in order to obtain the age breakdowns desired. It was also necessary to estimate the sex distribution of slaves in 1800 and 1810. For details of this estimation see Weiss (1987b). S. Labor Force, 1800 to 1860 (hundreds of workers aged 10 and over) iaoo Alabama Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Dakotas Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington Wisconsin United States 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 52 1 48 1,261 103 2,551 348 3,425 764 780 694 744 813 940 1,029 1,294 191 32 207 56 214 84 235 666 1,060 33 59 474 150 352 225 105 155 2,169 389 803 274 165 390 3,903 2,360 2,699 535 1,270 435 554 1,409 1,425 17 1,846 747 756 1,493 1,636 36 2,348 1,093 1,080 1,627 2,037 106 2,724 1,752 1,410 1,665 2,632 640 38 1a2 334 215 620 435 1,761 1,213 486 592 581 698 698 808 817 943 920 1,118 I ,628 1,724 113 2,610 2,054 550 3,863 2,410 1,440 5,604 2,842 2,386 7,591 2,913 4,088 1,606 214 I ,498 294 2,140 248 1,873 778 2,835 27 1 2,287 1,277 3,806 335 2,761 2,147 4,956 395 2,847 2,677 37 1 3,426 532 3,860 636 4,257 780 4,802 85 1 4,939 1,138 1,492 194 10,363 3,480 5,831 49 7,170 565 3,307 3,450 a33 33 1,019 5,632 123 891 4,481 1,637 2,036 295 1,621 10 359 250 619 4,765 5,167 3,795 1,922 323 4,124 3,509 2,081 2,385 4,544 2,386 538 3,968 3,771 103 57 1,178 2,156 26 1 13,471 4,180 6,907 185 9,166 685 3,564 4,024 2,431 94 1,010 6,427 61 2,356 57,781 81,925 112,901 16 672 361 1,273 1,229 17,125 Source: See the text for details 23,374 3 1,499 42,718 ioa 265 2,883 1,319 1,705 132 3,474 2,561 1,821 2,104 3,681 1,219 25 2,798 2,210 38 ThomasWeiss bellum participation rates that pertained to the entire population in the age-sex category.

While both censuses tried to report on all workers aged ten and over, including slaves, they did so imperfectly, and the accuracy and com20. Blodget’s estimates for 1805 imply that only 75 percent of the slaves were engaged in fanning, with 300,000 being “slaves to planters” and 100,000 being “variously employed” (1806,89). 21. A useful collection of pertinent articles can be found in James Newton and Ronald Lewis (1978). See also Robert Starobin (1970) and John Olson (1983). Olson’s sample data from plantation and probate records indicate that between 11 and 27 percent of the rural slaves were engaged in nonfarm activities.

While the pattern of acceleration now seems more like his, the source of it is fundamentally different. 35 percent per year, and a substantial effect from the shift of labor toward the more productive nonfarm industries. Now the overall acceleration is accomplished with only a mild increase in the rate of agricultural productivity advance and rests more on the speeding up of productivity advance in manufacturing. 31. Gallman has produced an estimate for 1774 as well, by invoking some reasonable judgments about the minimum productivity change that occurred between 1774 and 1840.

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