By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of event go back and forth. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. wonderful attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage throughout the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from worldwide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are targeted. a last part describes Antarctica this present day, detailing the natural world and geology of a area that's drawing progressively more viewers who, just like the adventurers ahead of them, are desirous about the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.
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Extra info for Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure
Petersburg. An expensive alternative was moving cargo from Siberian ports to St. Petersburg by sea, via Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. Unfortunately, the Russians had no established ports along either route and had to rely on foreign vessels to carry their goods. If lands not already claimed by Great Britain, France, or Spain could be found, then the Russians could establish safe ports for their ships. Subantarctic 36 ANTARCTICA islands and the southern continent itself—if it existed—were strong geographic contenders for potential ports.
Bouvet’s Cape Circumcision continued to elude Cook. However, penguin watching relieved the tedious hours for the men on duty. “Pass’d an ice island which had 86 Penguins upon it—I counted them,” boasted midshipman Mitchell. Pickersgill became a dedicated student of penguin behavior. “We ﬁred two 4 pounders at them but Missed . . they wheel’d off three deep and March’d down to the water in a Rant; they seemed to perform . . ” William Wales, an astronomer, analyzed their call. ” The men celebrated Christmas with second helpings of pudding and cups of grog.
Cook arrived at Cape of Good Hope in October. Rumors of Kerguélen’s discovery of “paradise” were rampant, but Cook didn’t alter his plans. More sheep and poultry were herded aboard the ships, and soon Cook set his course toward Bouvet’s Cape Circumcision, the possible tip of the Southern Continent. To help chart its position should he ﬁnd it, Cook carried four experimental chronometers, two for each ship. During the voyage, three of the four large clocks stopped working, victims of low temperatures and salty spray.